Cysts are cavities that grow in either the soft tissues or the hard tissues, are lined internally with tissues (epithelium) and contain fluid or semi-fluid. These are benign pathological entities. As they increase in size, they destroy the jaw bone and can take on large dimensions by shifting and pressing adjacent anatomical structures. In addition, they create problems such as infections and abscesses, loss of neighboring teeth that gradually lose their support and, in neglected cases, even fractures of the jaws.
There are different types of cysts. The development of cysts in most cases is associated with some inflammatory process in the mouth (decayed teeth, periodontitis) but can also occur without any obvious cause. Clinical symptoms include asymptomatic swelling of the area, redness of the mucosa and sometimes discharge of pus.
Treatment initially involves conservative treatment of the responsible tooth, if the cyst was caused by a damaged tooth. In larger cysts or in cysts that are not due to dental problems, the treatment includes either the complete removal of the cyst (nucleation) together with the responsible tooth, or the opening of the cyst (marsupialization) in order to reduce its size and totally remove the cyst in the future.