The wisdom teeth are the last teeth to erupt in the mouth. When they are properly arranged and the gums that surround them are healthy, then they do not need to be removed. The extraction of a wisdom tooth is necessary when it is not erupting properly in the mouth. It can move sideways, remain partially under the gums or completely enclosed under the gums or even in the jaw bone.
Wisdom teeth in an incorrect position in the jaw can cause many problems. When they are semi-impacted (they have “partially” appeared in the mouth), the opening around the tooth allows bacteria to enter between the gums and the tooth and cause inflammation (pericoronitis). Inflammation results in swelling, narrowing of the opening of the mouth, pain and sometimes fever. The pressure exerted on the adjacent teeth can also damage the proper alignment of the other teeth or even that, which has been achieved after a successful orthodontic treatment.
The biggest problem occurs when cysts or tumors appear around impacted wisdom teeth, causing the gradual destruction of the jaw bone as well as the adjacent teeth. Recent research shows that the chances of developing cysts or tumors around impacted teeth are 32% -35%.
Extraction of the impacted wisdom teeth usually solves the above problems, while their extraction at a young age (<25) reduces the possible complications after the surgery. Clinical examination and radiographic evaluation of the wisdom teeth can be assessed and the possibility of immediate or future problems can be predicted. Early assessment and diagnosis in adolescence (15-18 years) leads to more effective treatment.